GEOLOGY
The Crimean Mountains have a rich geological history and a complex structure. The mountains consist of three ranges formed by exogenic forces. The ranges are almost parallel and get lower to the north. All three ranges have the same distinctive features: steep southern slopes and smooth northern slopes.
Yalta Mountain-Forest State Nature Reserve is situated on the highest range of the Crimean Mountains, the Main Range.
Yalta Mountain-Forest State Nature Reserve is situated on the highest range of the Crimean Mountains, the Main Range.
The Crimean Mountains have a rich geological history and a complex structure. The mountains consist of three ranges formed by exogenic forces. The ranges are almost parallel and get lower to the north. All three ranges have the same distinctive features: steep southern slopes and smooth northern slopes.
The Main Range of the Crimean Mountains
  • is the oldest part of the Crimean Peninsula;
  • its area is 1565 square kilometers;
  • its elevation in the nature reserve is 1300 m;
  • its highest peak is 1545 m (Roman-Kosh Mountain);
  • the most part of the territory is 350 m above sea level;
  • the southern macroslope of the range goes down to the sea.

In Yalta, Nikita, Gurzuf the range has spurs that form Yalta and Gurzuf amphitheaters. They are 10-20° steep in the lower part and 20-45° steep in the middle and higher parts.
The Main Range of the Crimean Mountains
  • is the oldest part of the Crimean Peninsula;
  • its area is 1565 square kilometers;
  • its elevation in the nature reserve is 1300 m;
  • its highest peak is 1545 m (Roman-Kosh Mountain);
  • the most part of the territory is 350 m above sea level;
  • the southern macroslope of the range goes down to the sea.

In Yalta, Nikita, Gurzuf the range has spurs that form Yalta and Gurzuf amphitheaters. They are 10-20° steep in the lower part and 20-45° steep in the middle and higher parts.
Minerals
The Main Ridge represents a typical Mediterranean karst landscape. Rainwater quickly dissolves clean fractured Upper Jurassic limestone and forms various negative landforms and caverns: sinks, basins, wells, sinkholes and stalactite caves. These landforms are both on the surface of mountain pastures and underground.

The Main Range is formed with sedimentary rocks of different ages. The oldest of them form the basement of the range. They are Triassic dark grey, brown and black argillites with layers of aleurolites, sandstones and sometimes with conglomerates.

Together with Triassic ones these deposits belong to the Tauric Formation and form the lower part of the Main Range up to 400 m above sea level outcropping in the forms of smooth and steep grey agrillic talus and limestone rocks. The other part of the range above the Tauric Formation is composed of grey Upper Jurassic limestones.
Relief
The relief of the lower part of the range and the Crimean Riviera is much dissected by numerous deep gullies and the valleys of small rivers with temporary flow. Most of the slopes are 10º steep. They interchange with almost flat areas or get steeper.

The upper part of the range is a rolling plateau called mountain pasture, or yayla (Turkic: summer pasture).
Yaylas are
Yaylas are
plateaus from 100 m to 5-7 km wide with steep cliffs in south-west parts and smooth north-eastern slopes
with numerous karst sinks (up to 200-250 m deep), basins, bolsons
with 20-50 m ridges crossing the plateau to the north-east
Photos used on this site belong to (photo credits): S. Ledenkov, I. Sikorsky, L. Moroz, V. Kostrov, N. Litvinyuk, D. Rutyanov, S. Alyomov, M. Atamanenko, G. Prokopov, D. Voinov, Y. Timofeev, Y. Shumlyaeva, M. Rozanov, V. Anzylov, V. Zyuzin, A. Gromov, Y. Zhuravleva, E. Nekadimova, N. Krymsky, K. Polyanskaya, A. Rybintsev, A. Mishin, A. Dmitrieva and naturerussia.travel
Photos used on this site belong to (photo credits): S. Ledenkov, I. Sikorsky, L. Moroz, V. Kostrov, N. Litvinyuk, D. Rutyanov, S. Alyomov, M. Atamanenko, G. Prokopov, D. Voinov, Y. Timofeev, Y. Shumlyaeva, M. Rozanov, V. Anzylov, V. Zyuzin, A. Gromov, Y. Zhuravleva, E. Nekadimova, N. Krymsky, K. Polyanskaya, A. Rybintsev, A. Mishin, A. Dmitrieva and naturerussia.travel
Contacts
298650, The Republic of Crimea, Yalta, Sovietskoe, Dolosskoe road, 2.

+7 365 423 30 50
+7 365 437 88 41

zapovedcrimea@mail.ru
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If you have an emergency, witnessed a fire, illegal dumping or other law violations, dial:

+7 365 423 30 50
+7 978 904 24 40 (hotline)
+7 978 901 56 70
(Deputy Ranger Service Director)
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